Mr. Z's Links in Earth Science Topics:

Practice with ACTUAL INTERACTIVE Regents Exams:

Jan 2006 Earth Regents Practice June 2006 Earth Regents Practice
Jan 2005 Earth Regents Practice June 2005 Earth Regents Practice
Earth Regents Practice Sample  


Work Sheets Correlated to Regents Earth Science Curriculum:



Review Sheets for the Earth Science Regents Exams:

Earth Science Regents Test Review Practice Using the ESRT tables !



Courtesy of Larson Jewelers:




Assorted Earth Science Pages:


Tornado Page Mr. Z's Favorite Geology 
 Weather Page Space Page
Astronomy ... Wow! Greenhouse Effect
The Ocean Topographic Maps of Everywhere!
Weathering and Erosion Page Plate Tectonics Page
Volcanoes on the MooN? Glaciers

The Ring of Rock Formation:   Courtesy of Larson Jewelers

Rocks really are everywhere. They line the banks of our creeks and rivers and they even jet up into the sky in the form of mountains. But every rock looks different. How did rocks get so many places and why does each one look unique? The following passages will teach you the basics of studying rocks.

Rocks and minerals are very different. There are about 2500 minerals in existence, each made up of one or more elements that can be found on the periodic table. Minerals are the building blocks of rocks, which are made of a number of different minerals. There are three types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Are your parents and teachers always reminding you to recycle? You might be surprised to find out the earth practices recycling too. It actually recycles rocks through a process known as the rock cycle. The rock cycle was developed by James Hutton during the 1700s. In the rock cycle:

The Rock Cycle         Interactive Rock Cycle Diagram        Rocks on the Move

Layers of Rocks         A Whole Chapter on Rocks (PDF)

An Interactive Activity about the Rock Cycle         Interactive Rock Cycle Animation

Rocks & the Rock Cycle          What is the Rock Cycle

To understand how rocks change, it is best to start by understanding the types of rocks themselves. When molten magma cools off, it forms igneous rocks. For that reason some people call them fire rocks. They are usually glassy in appearance. Some examples of igneous rocks include pumice, obsidian and granite.

Sedimentary rocks are formed when fragments of other rocks, and even sometimes parts of dead organisms are cemented together by chemical compounds in the earth. There are three versions of sedimentary rocks: clastic, biologic, and chemical. Sedimentary rocks that are Clastic are created from a lot of existing rocks, but dead animals can get trapped in too. Biologic rocks on the other hand are made mostly of dead plant and animals. Chemical sedimentary rocks are made from chemicals that dissolve minerals. If a rock has a fossil in it, then it is a sedimentary rock. Examples of sedimentary rock include sandstone and shale.

Metamorphic Rocks are often layered or foliated. Rocks are changed into metamorphic rocks after being buried deep under the earth’s surface. The pressure does the transforming. Some common examples of metamorphic rocks include quartzite, marble, graphite and slate. When sandstone is compressed it changes to quartzite, when shale is compressed it becomes slate, when limestone is compressed it changes to marble and when granite is compressed is becomes gneiss.

How Igneous Rocks are formed             Igneous Rocks         

Classification of Igneous Rocks         Metamorphic Rocks

Formation of Metamorphic Rocks      

Where Are Metamorphic Rocks Found? (PDF)

Sedimentary Rock Formation              Sedimentary Rocks

More About Sedimentary Rocks

With the rock cycle, rocks are constantly being pushed down toward the center of the earth and then pushed back upward. When a volcano erupts, it spews lava which comes from inside the planet. However, many people don’t know that lava is actually liquid rock. That’s right, the rocks got so hot that they turned to liquid! The lava oozes onto the earth’s crust, which is the outer layer that we live on. It eventually cools, forming igneous rock. Some of the igneous rock becomes sedimentary rock and both are pushed down into the earth by more volcanic activity. Once it passes deep enough into the crust, it enters the mantle. If the earth were an apple, the crust would be the skin and the mantle would be the part beneath the skin that we eat. The mantle reaches about 1800 miles into the earth and it is where hot rocks pass upward to the crust and the cooler rocks continue downward to the next layer known as the outer core. The outer core is made of liquid iron and it is responsible for the earth’s gravity. The innermost layer of the earth is the inner core. It is the part in the center of the apple that most of us do not want to eat. It is extremely hot (9000 degrees Fahrenheit!) and full of pressure.

Inside the Earth            Forged by Fire            Earth Has Several Layers (PDF)

How Many Licks to the Center of the Earth?             The Earth’s Inside

The Layers of the Earth          Earth like a Puzzle          River of Rock

“Layers of the Earth” Rap Song



  THIS IS THE COOLEST! Check out the orbits of all the planets

   The Coolest Map of New York State

Interactive Science Lab:  Virtual Dating of Fossils

Interactive Science Lab:  Virtual Earthquakes

Interactive Science Lab:  Virtual River - Flooding and Discharge